Fluorine to boost lithium

In recent times, various research on the benefits of direct fluorination of lithium-based electrodes have appeared in the scientific literature. In an article published earlier this year, Professor Gerbrand Ceder and his team at the University of Berkeley1 explain that fluorine substitution is an essential catalyst for improving the life and energy density of cathode materials in thirst-quenched Li-ion batteries. Due to the strong Li–F interaction, it is believed that fluorine can also change the order of short-range cations in these materials, which is essential for the transport of Li ions. The theoretical study highlights the fact that for high fluoride substitution rates (above 15%) the effects are always beneficial.

Collaborators of the French network of RS2E batteries,2 have studied the direct fluoridation of LTO using xenon fluoride XeF2,an effective fluorinating agent and more accessible than fluorine gas, but particularly expensive. In an article published in August 2019, they propose a very detailed analysis of the materials obtained.This article echoes a May 2019 publication, the result of the Israeli-German collaboration of Professors Doron Aurbach and Ingo Krossing,3 which describes the direct fluoridation of HE‐NCM cathode materials and its remarkable effect on battery capacities and stability.

This work highlights the potential of direct fluorination to modify the properties of materials and molecules. In order to facilitate access to fluorine gas and allow the scientific community to explore the multiple possibilities of fluoridation in fields as diverse as energy, pharmaceutical chemistry or semiconductors, SUDFLUOR will soon bring to market a fluorine generator using an innovative technology. Producing and using fluorine has never been so simple and affordable.

BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Effect of Fluorination on Lithium Transport and Short‐Range Order in Disordered‐Rocksalt‐Type Lithium‐Ion Battery Cathodes , Bin Ouyang, Nongnuch Artrith, Zhengyan Lun, Zinab Jadidi, Daniil A. Kitchaev, Huiwen Ji, Alexander Urban and Gerbrand Ceder – Department of Materials Science and Engineering, UC Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, 94720 USA – February 2020 2. Atomic Layer Fluorination of the Li4Ti5O12 Surface: A Multiprobing Survey, Youn Charles-Blin, Delphine Flahaut,Jean-Bernard Ledeuil, Katia Guérin, Marc Dubois, Michaël Deschamps, Anne-Marie Perbost, Laure Monconduit, Hervé Martinez, Nicolas Louvain – Universities of Clermont Auvergne, Montpellier, Orléans and Pau & Pays Adour – August 2019 3. Fluorination of Li‐Rich Lithium‐Ion‐Battery Cathode Materials by Fluorine Gas: Chemistry, Characterization, and Electrochemical Performance in Half Cells, Ulf Breddemann, Evan M. Erickson, Victoria Davis, Florian Schipper, Mathias Ellwanger, Michael Daub, Anke Hoffmann, Christoph Erk, Boris Markovsky, Prof. Dr. Doron Aurbach and Prof. Dr. Ingo Krossing, Bar-llan University, Israel and Materialforschungszentrum (FMF), Universität Freiburg, Germany – May 2019